Age of Thought (1896)

Edward H. Fulton published Age of Thought (1896) for only a year and a half, but managed to release it on a weekly basis during that time. UoE, as of this writing, have only inspected two issues of the journal. Though the journal is interesting for many reasons, I think it is mostly of interest because in Volume 2, Issue 1, we find the first significant translation of Stirner into the English language, a full nine years before the Byington Translation is published. A transcripion of that text with background information is available in the first issue of Der Geist.



The AGE OF THOUGHT is an independent, radical, weekly paper; its watchword is “Liberty for All;” and while it welcomes discussion from all standpoints in furtherance of this condition, it will editorially advocate the following principles and incidentally criticise others:
MONEY—The issuance of money—medium of exchange—should be the free and unrestricted right of individuals and associations.
LAND—The right to land ends with occupancy and use of an area not excluding others from the use an of equal area. Only the improvement are the exclusive property of the individual.
TAXATION—All compulsory taxation is robbery, and should be resisted with the most prudent and effective forces at command at any given time. All public works should be paid for by voluntary contributions.
PERSONAL LIBERTY—The individual should have liberty to pursue his own ends at his own responsibility; inviting the resistance of other, by becoming invasive, just as others becoming invasive would meet resistance by him.
PROTECTION OF LIFE AND THE PRODUCTS OF LABOR—To be left to voluntary associations of defense; this defense does not warrant the proscription or prohibition of acts that may lead to invasive actions, for such proscription is in itself direct invasion of personal liberty, and calls for active resistance by individuals. Defense is warranted only in cases of direct or threatened invasion.
GOVERNMENT—All authoritative regulation of manners and customs, all restrictions on commerce, all meddling or interference with individual activities, exercised by any majority or minority whatever, is essentially iniquitous and should not be tolerated. The government (or the state) restricts the field of honest industry and thus drives many to thievery, fraud and rascality, while vainly legislating against its necessary product; it is maintained presumably to protect life and property while it indirectly kills and robs a hundredfold more than it saves; it means the pauperization, the slavery and the degradation of the many; it kills the liberty, prosperity and nobility of all; its foundation is brute force; it is invasive, and it invites the strongest resistance at any time practical and expedient.
METHODS OF GAINING LIBERTY AND APPROXIMATE EQUALITY—However inequitable the division of wealth may be today, and however plainly it gives evidence of robbery, it should not be forgotten that it is the state and not the individual who must be held responsible, for the robbery is made possible and is sanctioned by the law. The fortunate individual merely profits by the opportunity given him by the state his victims maintain. Passing by the question of the right of violent expropriation, in the opinion of the editor of this paper it is decidedly inexpedient; and therefore will be neither advocated nor favored in these columns. Liberty is all that need be required at present, for it follows that if the privileged rich were divested of their slaves their palaces would succumb to the ravages of time; huts and hovels would also disappear and in their stead would rise free homes. In a condition of equal freedom, the division of wealth would approach equality; the distribution would be equitable at least. The methods of gaining liberty should be defensive, never invasive; they should be made as effective as possible and such as to win the sympathy of the people: first, agitation by speech, by press and by passive resistance, and finally, if necessary, by active resistance.


subtitles: “A Radical Weekly Paper: An Advocate of Equal Freedom and Voluntary Cooperation”, 1:1 (July 4, 1896)–1:20 (Nov. 14, 1896);
“A Weekly Paper Advocating Individual Liberty and the Emancipation of Industry and Commerce from the Multifold Restrictions that Destroy Economic Equilibrium”, 1:21 (Nov. 21, 1896)–1:40 (Apr. 3, 1897);
“An Advocate of Equal Liberty and Voluntary Cooperation”, 1:41 (Apr. 10, 1897)–2:23 (Dec. 4, 1897);
“An Advocate of Liberty and Reason”, 2:24 (Dec. 11, 1897)
Editors:  Edward H. Fulton
Contributors: Henry Cohen, William Gilmore, Edward E. Gore, William B. Greene, William T. Holmes, E. Steinle, Francis D. Tandy, William A. Whittick

Index of Issues

Age of Thought | Volume 1, Number 1 | July 4th, 1896 | PDF
subtitle: “A Radical Weekly Paper: An Advocate of Equal Freedom and Voluntary Cooperation”
size: 9.25×12.5″ | pages: 8 | price: n/a
UoE Notes

UoE Notes: I find it amusing that the last sentence of the section titled “The Political Situation” reads as follows: “William McKinley may be the last president of the United States of America!”
Issue One Cover

Land, Money and Property  · E.H.Fulton 1
Newspaper and journal notices 3
Publisher’s Notes 3
The Political Situation · (unsigned) 3
Statement of Principles · E.H.Fulton 4
Introductory Statement  4
“Revolution Inevitable.” 5
Competition Not Monopoly. 5
Usury the “Bete Noir.” 5
He Will Fight 5
Free Competition · Francis D. Tandy 6
Advertising/Subscription info 8