Max Stirner | Bibliography

(*much of the content of this page has been taken from Wikipedia)

NoCoverAvailableDas unwahre Prinzip unserer Erziehung
(The False Principle of our Education)

by Max Stirner
Edited by Karl Marx
Rheinische Zeitung, April 10 – 19 1842, Köln

UoE Notes:
A reaction to Otto Friedrich Theodor Heinsius’ treatise Humanism vs. Realism, Stirner claims education aids the individual in becoming an individual.

Quote:
In a word, it is not knowledge that should be taught, rather, the individual should come to self-development; pedagogy should not proceed any further towards civilizing, but toward the development of free men, sovereign characters; and therefore, the will which up to this time has been so strongly suppressed, may no longer be weakened. Do they not indeed weaken the will to knowledge, then why weaken the will to will? After all, we do not hinder man’s quest for knowledge; why should we intimidate his free will? If we nurture the former, we should nurture the latter as well.


NoCoverAvailableKunst und Religion
(Art and Religion)

by Max Stirner
Edited by Karl Marx
Rheinische Zeitung, June 14 1842, Köln

UoE Notes:
Kunst und Religion (Art and Religion) was also published in Rheinische Zeitung, June 14, 1842. It addresses Bruno Bauer and his publication against Hegel called Hegel’s doctrine of religion and art judged from the standpoint of faith. Bauer had inverted Hegel’s relation between Art and Religion, by claiming that Art was much more closely related to Philosophy than Religion, based on their shared determinacy and clarity, and a common ethical root. Stirner, however, went beyond both Hegel and Bauer’s criticism, by asserting that Art rather created an object for Religion and could thus by no means be related to what Stirner considered -in opposition with Hegel and Bauer- to be ‘Philosophy’:

It [philosophy] neither stands opposed to an Object, as Religion, nor makes one, as Art, but rather places its pulverizing hand upon all the business of making Objects as well as the whole of objectivity itself,and so breathes the air of freedom . Reason, the spirit of Philosophy, concerns itself only with itself, and troubles itself over no Object.

— Max Stirner, Kunst und Religion, p. 110.

Stirner deliberately left Philosophy out of the dialectical triad (Art-Religion-Philosophy), by claiming that Philosophy “doesn’t bother itself with objects” (Religion), nor does it “make an object” (Art). Philosophy, in Stirner’s account, was in fact indifferent towards both Art and Religion. Stirner thus mocked and radicalised Bauer’s criticism of religion.

Quote:
It [philosophy] neither stands opposed to an Object, as Religion, nor makes one, as Art, but rather places its pulverizing hand upon all the business of making Objects as well as the whole of objectivity itself,and so breathes the air of freedom . Reason, the spirit of Philosophy, concerns itself only with itself, and troubles itself over no Object.


NoCoverAvailableDer Einzige und sein Eigenthum
(The Unique and its Property)

by [Integer] Introduction by [Praesent Libero] Foreword by [Augue Semper] Afterword by [Arcu Eget] Illustrated by [Consectetur Adipiscing] Translation by [Nulla Quis] Edited by [Luctus Non] Cover design by [Mauris Massa] Cover art by [Duis Sagittis] [Publisher], [Year], [City/Country] XX pages, WxH”
ISBN: 0-00-00-00-00-00
Cover price $XX.XX

UoE Notes:
Stirner’s main work is Der Einzige und sein Eigenthum (in modern German spelling Der Einzige und sein Eigentum; engl. trans. The Ego and Its Own), which appeared in Leipzig in October 1844, with as year of publication mentioned 1845. In The Ego and Its Own, Stirner launches a radical anti-authoritarian and individualist critique of contemporary Prussian society, and modern western society as such. He offers an approach to human existence which depicts the self as a creative non-entity, beyond language and reality.

The book proclaims that all religions and ideologies rest on empty concepts. The same holds true for society’s institutions that claim authority over the individual, be it the state, legislation, the church, or the systems of education such as Universities.

Stirner’s argument explores and extends the limits of criticism, aiming his critique especially at those of his contemporaries, particularly Ludwig Feuerbach, and at popular ideologies, including religion, liberalism, and humanism (which he regarded as analogous to religion with the abstract Man or humanity as the supreme being), nationalism, statism, capitalism, socialism, and communism.

In the time of spirits thoughts grew till they overtopped my head, whose offspring they yet were; they hovered about me and convulsed me like fever-phantasies – an awful power. The thoughts had become corporeal on their own account, were ghosts, e. g. God, Emperor, Pope, Fatherland, etc. If I destroy their corporeity, then I take them back into mine, and say: “I alone am corporeal.” And now I take the world as what it is to me, as mine, as my property; I refer all to myself.

— Max Stirner, The Ego and Its Own, p 15.

“Stirner went so far in his notorious work, Der Einzige und Sein Eigenthum (1845), as to reject all moral ideas. Everything that in any way, whether it be external force, belief, or mere idea, places itself above the individual and his caprice, Stirner rejects as a hateful limitation of himself. What a pity that to this book — the extremest that we know anywhere — a second positive part was not added. It would have been easier than in the case of Schelling’s philosophy; for out of the unlimited Ego I can again beget every kind of Idealism as my will and my idea. Stirner lays so much stress upon the will, in fact, that it appears as the root force of human nature. It may remind us of Schopenhauer. Thus there are two sides to everything.”

History of Materialism, Second Book, First Section, Chapter II, “Philosophical Materialism since Kant”

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NoCoverAvailableRecensenten Stirners
(Stirner’s Critics)

by [Integer] Introduction by [Praesent Libero] Foreword by [Augue Semper] Afterword by [Arcu Eget] Illustrated by [Consectetur Adipiscing] Translation by [Nulla Quis] Edited by [Luctus Non] Cover design by [Mauris Massa] Cover art by [Duis Sagittis] [Publisher], [Year], [City/Country] XX pages, WxH”
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UoE Notes:
Recensenten Stirners (Stirner’s Critics) was published in September 1845 in Wigands Vierteljahrsschrift. It is a response, in which Stirner refers to himself in the third-person, to three critical reviews of The Ego and its Own by Moses Hess in Die letzten Philosophen(The Last Philosophers), by a certain “Szeliga” (alias of an adherent of Bruno Bauer) in an article in the journal Norddeutsche Blätter, and by Ludwig Feuerbach anonymously in an article called Über ‘Das Wesen des Christentums’ in Beziehung auf Stirners ‘Der Einzige und sein Eigentum’ (On ‘The Essence of Christianity’ in Relation to Stirner’s ‘The Ego and its Own’ ) in Wigands Vierteljahrsschrift.

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NoCoverAvailableDie Philosophischen Reactionäre
(The Philosophical Reactionaries)

by [Integer] Introduction by [Praesent Libero] Foreword by [Augue Semper] Afterword by [Arcu Eget] Illustrated by [Consectetur Adipiscing] Translation by [Nulla Quis] Edited by [Luctus Non] Cover design by [Mauris Massa] Cover art by [Duis Sagittis] [Publisher], [Year], [City/Country] XX pages, WxH”
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UoE Notes:
Die Philosophischen Reactionäre (The Philosophical Reactionaries) was published in 1847 in Die Epigonen, a journal edited by Otto Wigand from Leipzig. At the time, Wigand had already published Der Einzige und sein Eigentum, and was about to finish the publication of Stirner’s translations of Adam Smith and Jean-Baptiste Say. As the subtitle indicates, Die Philosophischen Reactionäre was written in response to an article by Kuno Fischer (1824–1907) entitled Die Moderne Sophisten (1847). The article was signed ‘G. Edward’, and its authorship has been disputed ever since John Henry Mackay ‘cautiously’ attributed it to Stirner and included it in his collection of Stirner’s lesser writings. It was first translated into English in 2011, and the introductory note explains:

Mackay based his attribution of this text to Stirner on Kuno Fischer’s subsequent reply to it, in which the latter, ‘with such determination’, identified G. Edward as Max Stirner. The article was entitled ‘Ein Apologet der Sophistik und “ein Philosophischer Reactionäre” ’ and was published alongside ‘Die Philosophischen Reactionäre’. Moreover, it seems rather odd that Otto Wigand would have published ‘Edward’s’ piece back- to- back with an article that falsely attributed it to one of his personal associates at the time. And, indeed, as Mackay went on to argue, Stirner never refuted this attribution. This remains, however, a slim basis on which to firmly identify Stirner as the author. This circumstantial evidence has led some scholars to cast doubts over Stirner’s authorship, based on both the style and content of ‘Die Philosophischen Reactionäre’. One should, however, bear in mind that it was written almost three years after Der Einzige und sein Eigentum, at a time when Young Hegelianism had withered away.

— Max Stirner “The Philosophical Reactionaries : ‘The Modern Sophists’ by Kuno Fischer”, Newman, Saul (ed.), Max Stirner (Critical Explorations in Contemporary Political Thought), Basingstoke and New York: Palgrave Macmillan, p. 90 (2011).

The majority of the text deals with Kuno Fischer’s definition of Sophism. With much wit, the self- contradictory nature of Fischer’s criticism of Sophism is exposed. Fischer had made a sharp distinction between Sophism and philosophy, while at the same time considering Sophism as the “mirror image of philosophy”. The Sophists breathe “philosophical air” and were “dialectically inspired to a formal volubility”. Stirner’s answer is striking:

Have you philosophers really no clue that you have been beaten with your own weapons? Only one clue. What can your common sense reply when I dissolve dialectically what you have merely posited dialectically? You have showed me with what kind of ‘volubility’ one can turn everything to nothing and nothing to everything, black into white and white into black. What do you have against me, when I return to you your pure art?

— Max Stirner, “The Philosophical Reactionaries : ‘The Modern Sophists’ by Kuno Fischer”, Newman, Saul (ed.), Max Stirner (Critical Explorations in Contemporary Political Thought), Basingstoke and New York: Palgrave Macmillan, p. 99 (2011).

Looking back on ‘Der Einzige und sein Eigentum’, Stirner claims:

Stirner himself has described his book as, in part, a clumsy expression of what he wanted to say. It is the arduous work of the best years of his life, and yet he calls it, in part, ‘clumsy’. That is how hard he struggled with a language that was ruined by philosophers, abused by state- , religious- and other believers, and enabled a boundless confusion of ideas.

— Max Stirner, “The Philosophical Reactionaries : ‘The Modern Sophists’ by Kuno Fischer”, Newman, Saul (ed.), Max Stirner (Critical Explorations in Contemporary Political Thought), Basingstoke and New York: Palgrave Macmillan, p. 104 (2011).

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NoCoverAvailableGeschichte der Reaktion
(History of Reaction)

by [Integer] Introduction by [Praesent Libero] Foreword by [Augue Semper] Afterword by [Arcu Eget] Illustrated by [Consectetur Adipiscing] Translation by [Nulla Quis] Edited by [Luctus Non] Cover design by [Mauris Massa] Cover art by [Duis Sagittis] [Publisher], 1851, [City/Country] XX pages, WxH”
ISBN: 0-00-00-00-00-00
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UoE Notes:
Geschichte der Reaktion (History of Reaction) was published in two volumes in 1851 by Allgemeine Deutsche Verlags-Anstalt and immediately banned in Austria. It was written in the context of the recent 1848 revolutions in German states and is mainly a collection of the works of others selected and translated by Stirner. The introduction and some additional passages were Stirner’s work. Edmund Burke and Auguste Comte are quoted to show two opposing views of revolution.

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NoCoverAvailableFamous Sayings of Max Stirner

by [Integer] Introduction by [Praesent Libero] Foreword by [Augue Semper] Afterword by [Arcu Eget] Illustrated by [Consectetur Adipiscing] Translation by [Nulla Quis] Edited by [Luctus Non] Cover design by [Mauris Massa] Cover art by [Duis Sagittis] Thurland & Thurland, [Year], [City/Country] XX pages, WxH”
ISBN: 0-00-00-00-00-00
Cover price $XX.XX

UoE Notes:
Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Integer nec odio. Praesent libero. Sed cursus ante dapibus diam. Sed nisi. Nulla quis sem at nibh elementum imperdiet. Duis sagittis ipsum. Praesent mauris. Fusce nec tellus sed augue semper porta. Mauris massa. Vestibulum lacinia arcu eget nulla. Class aptent taciti sociosqu ad litora torquent per conubia nostra, per inceptos himenaeos. Curabitur sodales ligula in libero.

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See also: Max Stirner Bibliography (Portland: OVO 2016)

The Ego and Its Own (Go To Dedicated Page)

The Philosophical Reactionaries : ‘The Modern Sophists’ by Kuno Fischer